KIPHIC Glossary of Terms
Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) provides a proven framework, using multi- tiered interventions, and a systematic, data driven approach, which when implemented effectively with other disciplines, creates a mechanism for all individuals to achieve quality of life goals and be fully included across environments (Dunlap, 2013; Carr, 2002).
System-wide approaches, including schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) and organization-wide positive behavioral supports (OWPBS) have been meticulously assembled and researched within schools, organizations, and community settings. Both are applied through a multi-tiered continuum, focusing on teaching positive, prosocial behavior skills to all service recipients within the school or organization (Hawken & O’Neill, 2006). Specific evaluation procedures and practices exist within each tier, including universal (tier 1), targeted (tier 2), and intensive (tier 3) (Sugai, Simonsen, Bradshaw, Horner, & Lewis, 2014).
Universal interventions involve clear and consistent expectations which are systematically taught, reinforced, and corrected for all service recipients and staff. An example of universal expectations would be posting and reviewing lunch room expectations with all individuals before they enter the lunch room. When individuals engage in desired expectations they are reinforced verbally with positive, specific praise. Approximately 80% of recipients respond well to the majority of the universal interventions.
Targeted interventions include interventions for individuals who aren’t responding to universal interventions (10-15% of students). An example would be providing additional scheduled times throughout an individual’s day to teach and reinforce expectations. This can include specific prosocial skill curriculum or an additional lesson and reinforcement on expectations.
Intensive interventions are provided when universal and targeted interventions are not effective and reducing challenging behavior and increasing desired behaviors.
Life Outcomes Through Integrated Systems (LOTIS) wheel. The LOTIS wheel is a framework to implement multi-tiered PBIS interventions across home, school, work, and community contexts by embedding quality of life domains across these contexts (Freeman, Enyart, Schmitz, Kimbrough, Mathews, & Newcomer, 2015). As a planning tool, person centered or wrap around teams work through each of the domains and identify if the individual needs universal, targeted, or intensive supports to achieve domain related goals for the service recipient.
Implementation Science is focused on what will be implemented, how it will be implemented, and who will do the work of implementation (Ogden & Fixsen, 2014). Ogden and Fixsen summarize obstacles and facilitators of implementation as being associated with “characteristics of the innovation itself, the provider, the practitioner adopting the practice, the client or consumer, and the inner and outer concept of the service delivery organization”
Person Centered Planning is an ongoing problem-solving process that is used by a group of people who are interested in helping an individual achieve a lifestyle based upon her preferences, needs, and choices.
Functional Assessment, also referred to as a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA), is used to gather information to create an environment that makes problem behavior unnecessary and to develop interventions so that new skills can be taught to replace problem behavior with socially appropriate ones. Functional Assessment is a critical part of positive behavior support.
Intervention is the phase of the intensive individualized PBS process where strategies are implemented to reduce problem behavior and teach new skills. The PBS facilitator/team collaborates with the individual/family to determine function-based strategies/interventions,
Fidelity Observation occurs when an additional KIPHIC professional (mentor) will come to observe your facilitator observing and providing feedback to you on strategy/intervention implementation.
Contextual Fit Survey is completed to help an intensive PBS facilitator determine if the strategies/interventions in place are a good fit for the individual, family and team.
Baseline Data is taken prior to interventions to get an idea on trends of behavior (how often it is occurring, etc.) This data will be collected in a systematic way that the intensive PBS facilitator and other team members can decide upon such as marking tallies on a paper data sheet each time a behavior occurs, etc.
Assessment Data is the time that ABC (Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence) data will be collected.